Ozonoterapia in oncologie

OZONE THERAPY IN THE ONCOLOGY

(S.P.Aljochina, T.G.Tscherbatyuk “Ozone therapy: clinical and experimental aspects” – Nizhny Novgorod, 2003)

Ozone Therapy of Malignant Tumors

N. Altman (1995) summarizing the gathered experimental and clinical experience of world practice of ozone therapy in his book “Oxygen healing therapies” wrote that ozone has been used in the oncology for about ten years.

The works dedicated to investigations into the action of ozone in malignant tumors were made by the scientists from Germany, Cuba, the USA, Italy, Switzerland and have been recently continued in Russia.

The foreign researches based their attempts at using ozone in the oncology on two discoveries.

The first discovery was made by O. Warburg (1966, Germany) that the key reason for development of tumor is oxygen deficiency on the cell level.

The second discovery made by J. Varro (1974, Germany) showed intolerance of peroxides by tumor cells. In this connection there was made a supposition that ozone and hydrogen peroxide can affect metabolism of cancer cells. However the works of J. Varro as well as the results of earlier investigations made by the Russian scientists A.I. Zhuravleva, B.N. Tarusova (1962) that the content of peroxides in tumors is decreased as compared with normal tissues were not put to use in clinical oncology.

In 1980 F. Sweet et al. furnished proof about a tumor-inhibitory effect of ozone in vitro. The investigations into the influence of certain ozone concentrations on the development of cultures of tumor cells received from malignant tumors of lung, mammary gland and uterus have established the suppression of neoplasma growth in 90% of cases. At the same time, it has been pointed out to a slight ability of tumor cells to compensate the oxidative stress induced by ozone in comparison with normal cells (Sweet, 1980). M. Arnan, L. DeVries (1983) investigated the influence of ozone on carcinoma inoculated to mice. The results of that experiment showed that the animals exposed to ozone lived by 30-40 days longer that the animals of control group. H. Karlic et al. (1987) established the selective suppression of tumor cell growth of ovarian carcinoma, ovarian adenocarcenoma and endometrial carcinoma. The similar results were demonstrated by K. Zanker and Krozek (1989).....
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Conclusion

Summarizing the above-mentioned we would like to make a resume of the analyzed results.

A success of each therapeutic method based on the use of physical factors is defined by knowledge of the nature of disturbances on which these factors are focusing, on the one hand, and the mechanisms of their biological action, on the other hand.

Since in the metabolism of malignant tumor cells dominance belongs to the glycolysis, a phylogenetically older process than oxidation, tumor represents an original return to the earlier evolution level of development, a primitive and stable form of existence. In this connection it is logical to suppose that the creation of “evolution leap” – artificial oxidant environment of tumor - can contribute to disorganization of primitive anaerobic metabolism of neoplasma.

The disturbance of free-radical balance at presence of tumor is manifested as the antioxidant activity of tumor tissue, on the one hand, and exhaustion of the antioxidant defense of the organism-tumor carrier, on the other hand.

It is considered that many anti-tumor methods can be divided into two groups. The methods of one group are focused on decreasing the level of free-radical oxidation. On the contrary, the therapeutic methods of the other group are somewhat connected with further intensification of free-radical oxidation in tumor cells.

On the first stage of the performed investigations we have established that the local intra- and paratumoral introduction of ozone in the form of ozonated physiological saline creates a free-radical blockade of tumor, destroys its antioxidant defense, and as a result the intensified free-radical oxidation affects tumor considerably increasing the volume of necrotized tissue.

That results primarily in restoration of prooxidant-antioxidant balance of the organism-tumor carrier.

As criterion of efficiency of any anticancerogenic method is considered prolongation of lifetime of experimental animals. This parameter for rats with sarcoma-45 was 27% and 30% for rats with Pliss’ lymphosarcoma.

Having received positive results on the first stage of our investigation we focused on studying a possibility of systemic effect of ozone introduced by parenteral methods.

On the second stage of our investigation we determined the most effective concentration of ozonated physiological saline for parenteral use.

As criterion of efficiency was a decrease in tumor diameter at minimum disturbing effect of ozone on the integral organism. The appropriate concentration was determined – 400 mcg/L - and used on the next stage of investigation to study the combined effect of ozone and ionizing radiation.

The mechanism of action of ionizing radiation (dominant in the anti-tumor therapy) is connected with the processes including development of free-radical reactions.

Ozone modifies the action of ionizing radiation through the oxygen effect. It increases radiosensitivity of tumor by means of its artificial oxygenation (overcome of radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells).

Ozone used before the radiation increases a therapeutic interval between the tumor and normal tissue.

This allows to reduce the radiation dosage used and therefore decrease load on health tissues, mobilize antioxidant resources, restore the organism’s own defense properties.

Thus, ozone in high concentrations used by local methods produces an anticancerogenic effect, and in combination with ionizing radiation increases the efficiency of anti-tumor therapy.

However, the “triumph” of ozone was disturbed by the following important fact.

It was established that ozone concentration (900 mcg/L) used by parenteral method contributes to resorption of primary tumor knot, but results in metastasis of lymphosarcoma in 17% of animals.

Although ozonated physiological saline leads to destruction of tumor, it also induces a powerful free-radical attack exceeding the organism’s antioxidant potential and thereby creates cancerophilic conditions for normal tissues that leads to metastasis of tumor.

That discovery was confirmed both in the experimental works of foreign scientists and theoretical works of Russian scientists. Actually the stable prooxidant condition and the excessive level of lipid peroxidation in the cell create a “cancerogenic” situation inducing blastomatous transformation.

Everybody should know this and remember before using ozone in oncology as well as that ozone therapy is dose-dependent and requires careful selection of conditions when ozone therapy is reasonable for use.

All anti-tumor physical-chemical methods are focused on changing oxygen, free-radical homeostasis.

Ozone therapy (in particular, in the form of ozonated physiological saline) is the most physiological, effective and accessible method allowing influencing free-radical processes.

Ozone in the complex treatment of malignant tumors must occupy its own deserving niche.

 

Literature

 

A.Yu.Abrosimova “Spontanous and radiation-induced destruction of tumor cells”, Questions of oncology – 1992, No.4, p. 515-526

A.I.Ageenko, S.P.Gordienko, O.G.Sakandelidze “Immunity and therapy of experimental tumors”, Kishinev, 1982, 312 pages

I.G.Akoev “Biophysics investigates cancer”, Moscow: Science, 1987, 160 pages

N.N.Alexandrov, N.E.Savtchenko, S.Z.Fradkin. E.A.Zhavrid “The use of hyperthermia and hyperglycemia in the treatment of malignant tumers”, Moscow:Medicine, 1980, 265 pages.

A.V.Arutyunyan “Free-radical processes of blood serum, liver and large intestine in cancerogenesis of rats”, Questions of oncology – 1997, No.6, p. 618-622

A.V.Arutyunyan, E.E.Dubinina, N.N.Zybina “Methods of evaluation of free-radical oxidation and antioxidant defense system”, Methodical recommendations, 2000, 104 pages.

I.B.Afanasyev “Oxygen radicals in the chemistry and biology”, Minsk, 1984, p. 13-29

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M.N.Belousova “Biochemical properties of tumor cells”, Biology of malignant growth, Moscow, 1965, p.78-89

… 378 references.



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